Feeding Conures, Caiques and Amazon Parrots

LAST UPDATED 28th March 2022

This article is written by Pet Circle veterinarian, Dr Nicole Wynne BSc BVMS MANZCVS (Unusual Pets) and Dr Emilee Lay BSc (Vet) Hons BVSc

There are several species of conures that are kept as pets in Australia, including sun conures, jenday conures, and green-cheek conures. While caiques aren’t as common, they are a similar size to conures, but with enormous personalities, and they include the black-headed caiques and white-bellied caique. There are several species of Amazon parrot, and the most common species kept as pets in Australia are the yellow-winged and the yellow-fronted Amazons. 

These colourful parrots are beautiful and engaging, but they require a lot of care, especially a healthy, balanced diet.



Pellets and Seed

Contrary to popular belief, seed as the sole diet for parrots is not suitable, and far from complete or balanced! Fortunately, we now have good quality parrot pellets that provide a more balanced diet. Pellets can make up to 40-50% of their diet. Parrots love eating seed because it is high in fat, similar to fast food for humans, and just like fast food, it is low in important vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients like protein and fiber. South American parrots like conures and Amazons should have no more than 20% of their diet as seed. 

Fresh grass seeds can be picked from your lawn in the warmer months, and birds normally love them! Grass seeds are ready for picking once they start to form firm seed heads, and bunches can be hung in the aviary or cage for your birds to forage from. They also make a great environmental enrichment option, promoting natural behaviours. Consider growing some in a pot and letting your birds enjoy them!

Dried seed can also be sprouted, which reduces the fat content and increases the vitamin content. Sprouted seed can be fed once the little sprouts start to turn green, usually in 2-3 days in warm weather. 

Fruit and Vegetables

Fresh food such as fruit and vegetables is irreplaceable, and should comprise at least 30% of the diet. Suitable fresh fruit and vegetables include pumpkin, sweet potato, leafy greens like spinach, celery, and bok choy, apple, carrot, peas, capsicum, and pear. Avocado, onion, garlic, and ginger are toxic to birds. Fresh food can be cut up into “chop,” which can then be refrigerated for up to a week, or can be fed as whole pieces of fruit and vegetables. Fresh grass seeds are also a great addition when they are in season during the warmer months. 

Large or whole pieces of fresh food like pumpkin, cucumber, and cobs of corn with the husk can be fed as-is for a fun activity - parrots love nothing more than to make a mess! 


Nuts such as walnuts, macadamias, and peanuts are treat foods, and should only be given in small amounts. These South American parrots can have the equivalent of a walnut twice a week. For extra fun, give them the nut unshelled! Other suitable treats include seed sticks, and sweeter fruits like berries, peach, grapes, and banana. Treat foods can be given twice a week. Seed sticks should be removed after an hour, and placed back in the next week, as birds will selectively choose to eat these treats over healthier foods, just like us! Remember to remove seed sticks which have been contaminated with faeces. 

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Feeding Accessories

Metal feeding bowls are better than plastic bowls, as plastic bowls accumulate tiny scratches throughout their life, which then harbour harmful bacteria and are difficult to clean. It is best to get uncomplicated bowls and dishes, and avoid hooded dishes or feeders with multiple components as they don’t stop your birds from being messy, and they’re impossible to clean. Consider adding bird specific cleaning disinfectants to your home routine to help maintain freshness when sprouting seed and general cleaning of feed containers and cages. 

We recommend having 3-4 sets of dishes and bowls for your birds so they can be easily cleaned and replaced twice a day. They also allow you to easily mix foods. For example, seed and pellets can be mixed up with vegetable and fruit chop.  Multiple fresh water stations should always be available, and avoid placing food and water feeders under perches, as they are more likely to become contaminated with waste. 

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Using Food as Enrichment

Parrots forage for large amounts of time in the wild, and it is easy to create similar opportunities for pet birds. A plastic cat litter box can be filled partway with dry leaves, hay, or shredded paper, and their daily ration of dry seed can be sprinkled over, providing hours of entertainment! Snuffle mats designed for dogs and cats are also a great way of getting birds to forage and look for their food.

Food puzzle toys are fantastic for parrots as they have excellent problem solving skills! We stock some excellent parrot-specific toys, and several food puzzle toys designed for dogs are suitable for parrots too. Getting 3-4 different toys allows you to use them in rotation - you’ll be surprised at how quickly your parrot figures them out!

Finally, natural foliage acts as a beautiful enrichment item, and fresh fruit and vegetables can be hidden amongst the leaves. Do ensure that natural branches and leaves are hosed off and thoroughly sun-dried before using. 


Further Reading

Want to read more? Check out our other articles:

Beginner's Guide to Bird Care

Feeding Your Macaw

Why Your Bird Should Be Eating Pellets

How to Sprout Seed For Your Birds

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